Egypt is a country located in the northeastern corner of Africa, bordered by Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, the Red Sea and Israel to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It is the third most populous country in Africa, with a population of over 102 million people as of 2021.

Egypt has a rich and complex history that spans thousands of years. It is known for its ancient civilization, which produced iconic monuments such as the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Sphinx, and developed a sophisticated system of writing, art, religion, and governance. The pharaonic period of ancient Egypt lasted from around 3100 BCE to the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE.

After the pharaonic era, Egypt was ruled by various foreign powers, including the Greeks, Romans, and Ottomans. It became a British protectorate in 1914 and gained independence in 1922. In the post-independence period, Egypt has experienced political instability, economic challenges, and social unrest.

In 2011, mass protests led to the ousting of President Hosni Mubarak, who had ruled the country for nearly 30 years. Since then, Egypt has gone through a series of political transitions, with the military playing a prominent role in governance. The country is currently led by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who came to power in a military coup in 2013.

Egypt is a major exporter of petroleum and natural gas, which are its top exports. Other significant exports include textiles, chemicals, and agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables. The Suez Canal, which connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea and is located in Egypt, is also an important source of revenue for the country.

Looking to the future, Egypt faces a number of challenges, including a growing population, high unemployment, and political and economic instability. However, the country also has a rich cultural heritage, a strategic location at the crossroads of Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, and a diverse economy that could help it to thrive in the coming years.